Soccer is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each playing with a ball. Soccer is played by 250 million players in more than two hundred countries around the world, making it the most popular and widespread sport in the world.

Soccer is played on a rectangular field with two goals on each side. The aim of the game is to score goals by kicking the ball towards the goal.

The goalkeeper is the only player allowed to touch the ball with his hands or arms while inside the penalty area. Non-defending players often use their legs to attack or pass the ball, and can also hit the ball with their head. The team that scores the most goals is the winner. If both teams score the same number of goals at the end of the game, depending on the tournament system, the game ends in a draw or the game goes into overtime and/or penalties. The English Football Association established the rules for the game of football in England in 1863. International football is administered by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). The World Championship of this sport is held every four years and is the most important tournament at the international level. 
The style of football play, as well as its controls and laws, have evolved throughout history to the present stage of modern football, which is no longer about attacking and scoring as many goals as possible, but about tactics and skill. , which is represented by the general organization of a trainer. A soccer team controls the team's movements on the field to achieve the intended result.


   Football laws were passed in England in 1863 and the name “Association Football” was used to distinguish the game from other games that also bore the name football at the time, particularly rugby. The term football emerged in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an abbreviation of the English word “association”. In English-speaking countries, the word soccer is used in the United Kingdom, while soccer is used in the United States and Canada. In other countries such as Australia and New Zealand either or both terms may be used.

Football history

There are two types of football games whose existence is historically documented in Europe: Epixeros from ancient Greece and Harpastum, which emerged in Roman times. Both games are similar to football in that people gather but do not register, and football is played by holding the ball in one's hand rather than by kicking it. In some countries there are many ancient competitions based on kicking a ball, such as Cuju in China. There are also similar  but non-competitive games like Kemari in Japan and Wougabaliri in Australia. Modern football laws are based on efforts in the mid-19th century to standardize the different types of football played in local schools in England. The history of football in England dates back at least to the 8th century. The Laws of Cambridge, drafted at the University of Cambridge in 1848, had a significant influence on the development of rules for the game of football. The Cambridge Statutes were drawn up at Trinity College of the aforementioned university during a meeting between delegates from Eton College, Harrow School, Rugby School, Winchester School  and Shrewsbury School. However, these laws were not adopted by the universities. During the 1850s, many clubs, unaffiliated with schools or universities, were formed throughout the English-speaking world to entertain their members by playing various forms of football. Some of these clubs created their own rules of the game, notably the Sheffield Football Club, which eventually became part of the Sheffield and Halmshire Football Association in 1867. In 1862 Jones Charles Thring of Uppingham School created a set of laws affecting play.
These continued efforts contributed to the formation of the English Football Association in 1863, which held its first meeting on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern on Great Queen Street, London. The only school represented on this occasion was Carterhouse. Five more meetings took place in the Freemasons' Tavern between October and December, at which the first general rules of the game were drawn up. As general secretary of the Football Association and representative of the Blackheath Club, his club resigned from the Football Association at the last meeting over objections to the removal of two rules that had been approved at previous meetings. The first is to carry the ball in your hand and run with it, and the second is to impede the players by kicking the player's leg, tripping him or grabbing him (although this is allowed in rugby). Other rugby clubs soon expressed objections and did not join the Football Association, but founded the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The remaining eleven clubs, led by Ebenezer Cope Morley, adopted the original thirteen laws, which included holding the ball in hand and shooting the goal through a crossbar. These laws were strikingly similar to the Victorian football rules that were then beginning to develop in Australia. As for Sheffield United, its members continued to play according to their own rules until the 1870s. Currently the rules of the game are determined by the International Football Association Board. The IFA Council was founded in 1886 after a meeting of the English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish associations in Manchester. The oldest football competition in the world is the FA Cup, founded by Charles Alcock and in which English teams have taken part since 1872. The first official international match between Scotland and England took place in Glasgow in 1872 and was also hosted by Alcock. England is home to the world's first football league, founded in Birmingham in 1888 by William McGregor, the founder of Aston Villa. The league's original formation included twelve clubs from the Midlands of England and the north. FIFA, the international soccer organization, was founded in Paris in 1904 and declared that it would respect the laws of the game. The game's great popularity led to FIFA delegates joining the International Federation Council in 1913. The Council currently consists of four FIFA delegates and one delegate from each British association.

Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world. Typically, millions of people go to football stadiums to support their favorite teams, while billions of people watch the games on television or online. There are also many people who play ball at a beginner level. According to a 2001 FIFA survey, more than 240 million people play football in more than 200 countries. Football games have the largest television viewership of any sport.

In many parts of the world, football inspires passion and also plays an important role in the lives of fans, communities and countries. R. says Kapuscinski said that in Europe polite and shy people get excited when they play football or watch football matches. Among the most notable evidence of the role this sport plays in the lives of people and nations is the ceasefire that the Ivory Coast national football team helped secure during the events of the First Civil War in Ivory Coast in 2006, and its contribution to the dismantling of the The government and the rebels raised tensions in 2007 by playing a match in the rebel capital. Bouaké, which was seen as an opportunity to peacefully unite both armies for the first time. On the contrary, football was the direct cause of the football war between El Salvador and Honduras in June 1969. Football also caused tension at the beginning of the Yugoslavian war in the early 1990s, when there was a game between Dinamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade in May 1990 there was unrest.

the way of playing

Soccer is played according to certain rules, the so-called rules of the game. A ball with a circumference of 71 cm, which is called a "soccer ball", is used for playing. The game pits two teams of 11 players against each other, and each team must get the ball into the other team's goal (between the posts and under the crossbar) and score a goal. The team that scores the most goals at the end of the game is the winner. If both teams score the same number of goals or do not score a goal at all, it is a tie. Each team is led by a captain who, according to the rules of the game, has only one official role: taking part in the pre-match draw or penalty shootout.
The basic rule of the game is that players other than the goalkeeper must not touch the ball with their hand or arm during play, unless they are taking a throw-in. Although players often move the ball with their feet, they can use any part of their body (especially their head to shoot) besides their hand or arm. During play, players are allowed to kick the ball in any direction and move freely on the field of play as long as the ball is not played towards a player who is flagged for offside.
In a traditional game, players try to find suitable opportunities to score a goal through individual control of the ball, e.g. B. by dribbling, maneuvering and dribbling the ball or by passing the ball to their teammates and shooting towards the goal protected by the ball goalkeeper. to prevent the ball from entering. Players from the opposing team try to control the ball by cutting it off from the opponent, as physical contact between opponents is limited. Football is a fluid game that does not stop unless the ball goes out of bounds or the referee stops the game for a violation of the law. The game continues with a special replay.
At the professional level, there are only a few goals scored in games. For example, in the 2005/06 English Premier League season, the average number of goals per game was 2.48 goals per game. The rules of the game did not provide for positions for players other than the goalkeeper, and as the rules of the game of football developed, the team began to divide these positions into three basic classifications: attackers, whose main task is to score goals, and defenders, who occupy these positions Three basic classifications specialize in hindering opponents' advance to score a goal and midfielders retaining possession. They pass it on to their attacking teammates. These positions are divided into subcategories based on the position on the field where they spend the most playing time. As a central defender and midfielder on the right and left. Players can easily move their positions and change positions at any time. The plan for placing players is called a lineup or division. Usually the coach is the one who decides the formation and tactics.

Rules of the game

There are 17 original Official Game Rules, each containing conditions and guidelines. These laws are designed to accommodate all levels of football players, although with some changes to take into account certain groups of people such as children, young people, women and people with physical disabilities. These rules are usually formulated in general terms, so they can be applied flexibly depending on the type of game. FIFA ensures that the Laws of the Game are implemented, even as they are declared and established by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). In addition to the 17 laws, the resolutions and directives of the Federation Council also play a role in regulating sport.

Players equipment and referee

Each team plays with 11 players, excluding substitutes, and one of them must be a goalkeeper. Most competitions and tournaments have a minimum number of players, usually up to 7 players. Only the goalkeeper is allowed to use his hands and arms within his own penalty area. With the exception of goalkeeper, there are many coach-assigned positions and tasks for players. However, these positions are not legally binding, meaning that these positions are determined by the trainer and can be changed at any time if necessary. .

The basic equipment or player uniform is one of the basic items of clothing in football. A football uniform consists of a jersey, shorts, socks, shoes and shin pads. Helmets are not required or part of the uniform, although some players currently wear them to protect themselves from head injuries. Players are prohibited from wearing items that could harm themselves or other players, such as jewelry and watches. Guards must wear uniforms that do not resemble those of the players or referees in order to be easily recognizable.

There are a number of players who can be replaced by substitutes or substitutes during a temporary break in play. In most international tournaments and professional leagues, the maximum number of substitutions is three substitutions. However, for other tournaments or friendly matches this number may vary. The main reasons for substitutions are injury or fatigue of the player, lack of interaction with the game, tactical problems or a loss of time in the last minutes of the game. In official tournaments, a player who is substituted and leaves the game cannot re-enter and play the same game. The International Football Association Board states that "a game cannot continue if the number of players on either team is less than seven players." The decision on awarding points in postponed games is left to individual associations.

The game is officiated by the referee, who has "full authority to apply the Laws of the Game in relation to the game for which he is responsible" (Rule 5), and the referee's decisions are final. Two assistant referees support the main referee in making decisions. In high-level games there is a fourth official who also helps the referee and takes on some simple tasks himself.


The length of football fields was determined using the Imperial Standard Units, a law established in England by the four British associations within the IFAB. Current laws have repositioned the dimensions of modern stadiums accordingly, so that stadium dimensions are measured in the metric equivalent until they take their current form. Nonetheless, the public in English-speaking countries tend to use stadiums planned in the traditional style. way, like Britain.

The length of the field on which official games are played is between 100 and 110 meters (110 to 120 yards) and its width is between 64 and 75 meters (70 to 80 yards). Fields not used for official games are between 90 and 120 meters (100 to 130 yards) long and between 45 and 90 meters (50 to 100 yards) wide, unless the field is square. In 2008, the International Federation Council reduced the size of the stadium to 105 meters (344 feet) long and 68 meters (223 feet) wide to make it suitable for hosting official tournaments. However, this decision was put on hold and never implemented.

The longer boundary lines are the touch lines and the shorter boundary lines are the goal lines (where the goal is placed). A rectangular goal is placed at the center of each goal line, with the distance between the vertical crossbars being 7.32 meters (8 yards) and the height of the horizontal crossbar being 2.44 m (8 feet) above the ground by vertical crossbars. The net is placed behind the goal, although there is no law requiring a net to be placed for the goal. In front of each goal is a special square area called the penalty area. This area is bounded by the goal line and extends vertically into the field of play from the last line to 16.5 meters (18 yards), with a horizontal line in between. This area has a number of functions, the most important of which is that the security guard can use his hands in this area. It is also used for goal kicks, penalties, and penalties.

Duration and tie-breaking rules

An official game consists of two periods of 45 minutes each, called times. Both halves are non-stop, meaning the clock will not stop if play is stopped. There is a 15-minute break between breaks. The end of the game is called the end of regular playing time. The referee is responsible for timing and may allow extra time to be added to the game instead of wasting time on substitutions, injury to a person or any other reason to stop the game. This additional time is usually called extra time, injury time, stoppage time or additional time. Determining the time lost is also the responsibility of the referee, who estimates this based on the time lost. The referee is the one who signals the end of the game. The fourth official's job is to announce the extra time, while the head referee announces the time he wants to add. The fourth official will then carry an electronic board with the overtime number so players and spectators know how much time is left. The referee can extend the extra time. The overtime rule was necessitated by an incident in 1891 in a match between Aston Villa and Stoke City where Aston Villa were leading 1-0 and Stoke City were awarded a penalty two minutes from time The Aston Villa keeper shot the ball wide and it took a while before he got the ball back until the ninety minutes had passed and the game was over and the penalty was not taken. The same law states that even if overtime ends, the time span is extended until the penalty kick is taken or taken again, so the game does not end and a penalty kick is waiting to be taken.

In Douari competitions the game can end in a draw. However, in competitions that have a knockout stage and require a winner, different rules apply, including additional rules for goals when the match is a two-legged match and in some competitions It may also happen that the game that ended in a draw is replayed. . Additionally, a game that ends in a draw may go into overtime, which lasts two halves of 15 minutes each. If it remains a tie, penalties (officially called "penalties" in the law) are used to determine which team qualifies for the next stage of the tournament. Goals scored in extra time are counted in the final score of the match, however shots from the penalty spot are only used to determine who advances to the next stage, meaning that goals scored from penalties do not count in the scoreboard can be counted. Final.

In home and away competitions, the two teams play each other once at home and the results of the two games are combined to determine which team has scored the most goals and qualifies. However, if the two points are tied, the away goals rule will be used to determine the winner and the winner will be determined by who has scored more away goals. However, if both teams have the same number of goals scored at their opponents' home, overtime and penalties will be used to determine the winner and qualification.

Since the late 1990s and early 2000s, the International Football Association Board has attempted to experiment with different ways of ending the game without resorting to penalty kicks, as it is an undesirable way of ending a game. If a goal is scored in the extra innings, the game ends (the golden goal), and if a team scores in the first extra inning and it ends, the team is deemed a winner (the silver goal). The golden goal was used at the World Cup from 1998 to 2002 and the first golden goal at the World Cup was in a match between France and Paraguay in 1998 and France won that goal. The first golden goal in a very important match came between Germany and the Czech Republic in the 1996 European Nations Cup final.
The silver goal came at the 2004 European Nations Cup. The International Federation Council canceled both experiences.

The ball is in and out of play

 In the laws there are two rules for ball play: the ball is in play and the ball is out of play. From the start of the half, from kick-off to the end of the half, the ball is in play at all times unless it leaves the field of play or the referee temporarily stops play. If the ball is not in play, play will resume under one of eight replay rules. These rules apply based on how long the ball has been out of play. These repetitions are:

Kick-off: It takes place when one of the two teams scores a goal or before the start of both periods and is played from midfield.

Throw-in: If the ball crosses the touchline and leaves the field of play, a throw-in is awarded to the team that did not last touch the ball when it came out and is taken where it came out.

Shot or goal kick: If the ball crosses the goal line without scoring, it is awarded to the defending team if the ball last touched and left a player of the attacking team.

Corner Kick: If the ball crosses the goal line and leaves the goal without scoring a goal, and the last player of the defending team touches it before leaving, it is considered a corner kick for the attacking team, taken from the corner in the country.

Indirect free kick: awarded to a team after the other team commits a foul without penalty, technical violations or a stoppage of play to warn the opponent without a specific foul having occurred. Indirect free kicks cannot score a goal until they are touched and taken by a player.

Direct Free Kick: Awarded to the team that illegally fouls one of their players on the other team. A goal can be scored directly from a non-contact shot from a direct free kick.

Penalty: Awarded to the team whose opponent commits a foul in the penalty area. It is a direct free kick, but inside the penalty area, and it is taken at the penalty mark.

Dropped Ball: Occurs when the referee stops play for any reason,due to accidental injury to a player,contact between players or a defect in the ball.

errors while playing

A foul occurs when a player commits an offense specified in the rules of the game during the game; If a player intentionally injures his teammate, he will be forced to pay the cost of his treatment and be sidelined for the duration of the latter's injury until he recovers, due to his intentional injury. These errors are considered fouls and are mentioned in the twelfth law. An example of a penalty foul is intentionally touching the ball, pushing an opponent, or obstructing an opponent. Depending on the location of the foul, the penalty is either a direct free kick or a penalty kick. Other violations are punished with indirect free kicks. The referee punishes the player by warning him with a yellow card or sending him off with a red card. If a player receives a second yellow card in a game, it is as if he had received a red card and was therefore sent off. The player who receives a yellow card appears as "remembered" and the referee writes the player's name in his small official notebook so that he can remember it later. If a player is sent off, no substitute can be used. An error can occur at any time, and although errors are specified and limited to the list in Rule Twelve, the penalty decisions are broad and not limited. The crime of unsportsmanlike conduct is punished as a violation of the spirit of the game. The referee cannot give a yellow or red card to non-players such as the coach, fans and staff, but they can be expelled from the technical area if they do not control their behavior responsibly. In addition to stopping the game, the referee may order the game to be continued if the ball is in the possession of a team against which the other team has committed an offense in their favor. This is called “playing to advantage.” All on-field referee decisions are final and will be implemented without appeal. The result cannot be changed after the game, even if one of the goals was wrong or the referee's decisions were wrong.

off the field

In addition to enforcing general sporting laws on the pitch, football associations and competitions can also enforce the application of rules of conduct in a broader area of the game, i.e. H. off the field, addressing various issues that may not be applicable. They have a direct connection to the parties, such as the statements made. One of the players in the press, the financial management of the clubs, the drug use of one of the players and the falsification of age. Some incidents that occur on the pitch, if very serious (e.g. accusations of racial slurs), may give the referee more power to investigate and put an end to them. Some associations allow an appeal against a player suspended on the pitch if clubs believe the referee's decisions are wrong or too harsh.
In the event of violations, sanctions can be imposed on the player or the entire team. Sanctions include fines, deduction of points (in leagues) or even exclusion from the tournament. For example, the English and Scottish leagues deduct ten points from the team that fails to pay their debts.

Responsible bodies 

FIFA is the recognized governing body for football (and other team sports such as futsal and beach soccer).FIFA's headquarters are in the Swiss city of Zurich Six continental associations are affiliated to it namely:

  • Asia: Asian Football Confederation (AFC)
  • Africa: Confederation of African Football (CAF)
  • Central, North America and the Caribbean: Confederation of North, Central America and the Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF)
  • Europe: UEFA
  • Oceania: Oceanic Football Confederation (OFC)
  • South America: South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL)

National associations regulate football within countries where they are fully sovereign (e.g. the Cameroon Football Association in Cameroon) and also include a smaller number of associations for administrative subdivisions or autonomous regions (e.g. the Scottish Association of Football in Scotland). ). There are 208 national associations affiliated with FIFA and their own continental associations.

While FIFA sponsors the organization of tournaments and most of the laws of international competitions, the actual Laws of the Game have been set by the members of the International Federation of Association Football Associations, with there being one vote for the UK associations while there are four. Votes for FIFA.

Global competitions

The largest football competition in the world is the World Cup organized by FIFA. This competition takes place every four years and around 190 to 200 national teams take part in World Cup qualifiers, with the supervision of the continental federations trying to secure a place in the final. 32 national teams take part in the World Cup finals, which take place every four years, over a period of four weeks. The last World Cup competition was held in Russia in 2018 from June 14 to July 15 and was won by the French team after beating their Croatian counterpart 4-2 in Moscow.

Soccer is part of the Olympic Games and since 1900 a tournament has been played at every Summer Games except for the 1932 Games in Los Angeles. Before the start of the World Cup, the Olympic Games (particularly in the 1920s) served as the World Cup, although the tournaments were for amateurs only. Professional players have been allowed to compete in the Olympics since the 1984 Games, albeit with some restrictions that prevent countries from competing with the strongest teams. Currently, men's soccer at the Olympics is played by players under the age of 23. Older players used to be allowed to take part in the Olympic Games. In 1996, analogous to the men's tournament, a women's tournament was added, in which all national teams were allowed to participate without setting an age limit.

Continental competitions are considered the most important tournaments and competitions in the world after the World Cup and are organized by continental federations in which the continent's own national teams compete. The continental championships are: European Nations Cup (UEFA), Asian Cup (AFC), Copa América (CONMEBOL), African Cup of Nations (CAF), CONCACAF Gold Cup and Oceania Nations Cup (OFC). The Confederations Cup is a competition between the six winners of the continental championships, the winner of the World Cup and the tournament's host country. This tournament is considered a warm-up tournament for the next World Cup, but does not follow the same system as the World Cup. The main competitions between clubs in football are the continental competitions organized between the clubs of each continent, for example the European Champions League in Europe and the Copa Libertadores in South America. All the winners of their continent's championship will take part in the FIFA Club World Cup, organized between the champions of each continent.

Local competitions

The relevant football associations in each country operate a league system that is played each local season and is divided into several divisions, so that each team in the league receives points per season depending on their results. The teams are placed on a table and classified according to the number of points each scored. Normally a team plays every team in the league twice, once at home and away against every other team each season, and the championship is a group final to determine the winner. for points. At the end of the season, the first-placed team wins the championship and becomes champion. Clubs in the upper places can be promoted to a higher league, clubs in the lower places can be relegated to a lower league than the league in which they play. The winners can also take part in international competitions in the following season. An exception to this system exists in some Latin American leagues, which divide football tournaments into two categories: opening and closing tournaments, and crown a champion in both. Most countries add a "cup tournament" in addition to the league, and this tournament is purely based on a knockout system.

Higher divisions in some countries' leagues may require their teams to pay a higher amount for star players, while players in lower divisions may have temporary jobs. The five main leagues in Europe (Bundesliga (Germany), Premier League (England), LaLiga (Spain), Serie A (Italy) and Ligue 1 (France) attract the best players in the world and each league costs a combined £600 million (763 million dollars. 1 million euros or 1,185 million dollars).

Other forms

Women's football

Women have been playing football since 1895, the date of the first recorded women's football match in North London. This sport has traditionally been associated with charity games and physical activity, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, this view began to change in the 1970s with the introduction of women's football in the United Kingdom. Women's football is currently one of the most well-known sports in several countries and one of the few sports that offers professional leagues for women.

The growth of women's football in the world has led to the introduction of major competitions at national and international levels, as well as competitions for men. Women's football faced many difficulties and enjoyed its golden age in the early 1920s in the United Kingdom, when some games were attended by up to 50,000 spectators. However, this ended on 5 December 1921 when the Football Association of England voted to ban the game in international territories. . Used by member clubs. The association's ban was lifted in 1969 and UEFA voted to officially recognize women's football in 1971. The FIFA Women's World Cup was first organized in 1991 and the tournament has been held every four years since then.

other kinds

Different forms of soccer can be played with fewer players (e.g. futsal), can be played on surfaces other than grass (e.g. beach soccer and futsal), and can be played for teams with disabilities (e.g. soccer for the). disabled). One of the reasons people play soccer is because it can be played in the neighborhood and with little equipment. The game can be played on any open area of acceptable dimensions for a playing field, using a ball and two markers as crossbars. In such games, each side may select eleven players, each using a limited or modified set of the formal rules of the game, and the players may direct the game themselves.

Next Post Previous Post
No Comment
Add Comment
comment url